Data Recovery Tanzania BLOG
What is ransomware and how to help prevent ransomware attacks
The idea behind ransomware, a form of malicious software, is simple: Lock and encrypt a victim’s computer or device data, then demand a ransom to restore access.
In many cases, the victim must pay the cybercriminal within a set amount of time or risk losing access forever. And since malware attacks are often deployed by cyberthieves, paying the ransom doesn’t ensure access will be restored.
Ransomware holds your personal files hostage, keeping you from your documents, photos, and financial information. Those files are still on your computer, but the malware has encrypted your device, making the data stored on your computer or mobile device inaccessible.
While the idea behind ransomware may be simple, fighting back when you’re the victim of a malicious ransomware attack can be more complex. And if the attackers don’t give you the decryption key, you may be unable to regain access to your data or device.
Knowing the types of ransomware out there, along with some of the dos and don’ts surrounding these attacks, can go a long way toward helping protect yourself from becoming a victim of ransomware.
Types of ransomware
Ransomware attacks can be deployed in different forms. Some variants may be more harmful than others, but they all have one thing in common: a ransom. Here are seven common types of ransomware.
Crypto malware. This form of ransomware can cause a lot of damage because it encrypts things like your files, folders, and hard-drives. One of the most familiar examples is the destructive 2017 WannaCry ransomware attack. It targeted thousands of computer systems around the world that were running Windows OS and spread itself within corporate networks globally. Victims were asked to pay ransom in Bitcoin to retrieve their data.
Lockers. Locker-ransomware is known for infecting your operating system to completely lock you out of your computer or devices, making it impossible to access any of your files or applications. This type of ransomware is most often Android-based.
Scareware. Scareware is fake software that acts like an antivirus or a cleaning tool. Scareware often claims to have found issues on your computer, demanding money to resolve the problems. Some types of scareware lock your computer. Others flood your screen with annoying alerts and pop-up messages.
Doxware. Commonly referred to as leakware or extortionware, doxware threatens to publish your stolen information online if you don’t pay the ransom. As more people store sensitive files and personal photos on their computers, it’s understandable that some people panic and pay the ransom when their files have been hijacked.
RaaS. Otherwise known as “Ransomware as a service,” RaaS is a type of malware hosted anonymously by a hacker. These cybercriminals handle everything from distributing the ransomware and collecting payments to managing decryptors — software that restores data access — in exchange for their cut of the ransom.
Mac ransomware. Mac operating systems were infiltrated by their first ransomware in 2016. Known as KeRanger, this malicious software infected Apple user systems through an app called Transmission, which was able to encrypt its victims’ files after being launched.
Ransomware on mobile devices. Ransomware began infiltrating mobile devices on a larger scale in 2014. What happens? Mobile ransomware often is delivered via a malicious app, which leaves a message on your device that says it has been locked due to illegal activity.